Alder Buckthorn

Aloe vera

American Cranesbill

American Ginseng -

Angelica -

Aniseed - Purposes: Relaxing expectorant, spasmolytic, carminative, antiseptic, parasiticide, aromatic. Bronchial catarrh, pertussis, spasmodic cough, flatulent colic. Topically for pediculosis and scabies. The volatile oil in aniseed provides the basis for its internal use to ease griping, intestinal colic and flatulence. It also has a marked expectorant and antispasmodic action and may be used in bronchitis, in tracheitis where there is persistent irritable coughing, and to reduce the symptoms of whooping cough. Externally, the oil may be used in an ointment base for the treatment of scabies and lice infestations. Aniseed's mild oestrogenic effects, thought to be due to the presence of diantheole and photoantheole, explain the use of this plant in folk medicine to increase milk secretion, facilitate birth and increase libido.

Arnica -



Balsam of Peru




Belladonna -


Beth Root



Black Catechu

Black Cohosh -

Black Haw

Black Horehound -

Black Root

Black Willow -


Blessed Thistle -

Blood Root

Blue Cohosh

Blue Flag

Bogbean -



Broom -


Buckwheat -


Burdock - Purposes:  Leaves: mild laxative, mild diuretic, depurative. Root: Depurative, mild laxative, mild diuretic, bitter, diaphoretic, antirheumatic, antibiotic, orexigenic. Seeds: prevent fever, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, reduce blood sugar levels, relaxant, demulcent, tonic. The herb is specifically indicated as a poultice for boils and abscesses, the root for psoriasis and the dry and desquamatory phase of eczema.  Arctium is a  valuable remedy for the treatment of dry and scaly skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema. It cleanses the blood, and should be used gently over a period of time. It may be used as part of a wider treatment for rheumatic complaints, especially where there is associated with psoriasis. An infusion of the leaf may be applied to cracks, grazes, chapped skin and insect bites. Arctium has an antimicrobial action which has been attributed to the polyacetylenes in the plant. This explains its reputation for treating toxic conditions resulting in skin eruptions such as boils; it is also useful in treating acne. An extract of burdock root called burdock root oil is used to stimulate hair growth in alopoecia.


Californian Poppy -

Caraway -

Cardamom -



Cayenne: -  flatulent dyspepsia in the absence of inflammation, colic, insufficiency of the peripheral circulation; as a gargle for chronic laryngitis; externally for neuralgia, rheumatic pain and unbroken chilblains. Capsicum is a good general tonic, specific for the circulatory and digestive system. It regulates blood flow and strengthens the heart, arteries, capillaries and nerves. It improves arterial blood supply to the tissues and toxin removal. It is a strong circulatory stimulant,  appearing to reinforce the action of certain prostaglandins, thereby increasing the flow of blood through all the tissues of the body and producing a diaphoretic effect. Capsaicin is known to mimic the effect of some of the prostaglandins. It desensitizes the sensory nerve endings to pain stimulation by depleting Substance P from the nervous system, which is the basis for its use as a local analgesic, and recent research suggests that cayenne can ease the severe pain of shingles and migraine. It is also used in digestive debility and flatulent dyspepsia in the absence of inflammation. The addition of Capsicum to a prescription will ensure that the other ingredients quickly reach all tissues even where there is poor circulation.

Celery - Mild diuretic, mild spasmolytic, carminative, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, sedative, hypotensive, urinary antiseptic, reputed aphrodisiac. Rheumatism, arthritis, gout, inflammation of the urinary tract. Specifically indicated in rheumatoid arthritis. Apium is known as a mild diuretic and urinary antiseptic and has been used in the treatment of urinary calculi. It has a calming effect on the gut, and can be used in the relief of flatulence and griping pains. However, whilst it can reduce visceral spasm, it conversely stimulates the smooth muscle of the womb and can bring on delayed menstruation. After childbirth it helps the uterus readjust and encourages the flow of breast milk. The phthalides are the constituents responsible for the antispasmodic, sedative and diuretic actions. Apium has a direct action on the kidneys, increasing the elimination of water and speeding up the clearance of accumulated toxins from the joints and so is of benefit in any oedematous condition that accompanies arthritis. It  is often administered with Taraxacum radix to increase the efficiency of elimination by both the kidneys and the liver. Apium is also hypoglycaemic, and as such is helpful in diabetes; this action seems to involve a direct action on the pancreas and its production of insulin. Clinical studies in China have demonstrated a hypotensive action for the tincture, and this is accompanied by increased urine output. The flavonoid apigenin has exhibited significant anti-platelet activity in vitro.



Chamomile - Purposes:  anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, vulnerary, antimicrobial, mild sedative, carminative, antiseptic, anticatarrhal. Internally for spasm or inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, peptic ulcer, flatulent or nervous dyspepsia, travel sickness, nasal catarrh, restlessness, mild sleep disorders. Specifically indicated in gastrointestinal disturbance with associated nervous irritability in children. Topically for haemorrhoids, mastitis, leg ulcers, eczema and irritations of the skin and mucosa anywhere in the body. Chamomilla has a wide range of actions. It is used in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety and nervous tension, for the relief of spasmodic pain such as dysmenorrhoea or migraine, and is a  safe remedy for children’s problems with a nervous component. This spasmolytic action is due to the presence of flavones, bisabolol and other constituents of the volatile oil. This herb is particularly suited to digestive problems such as nervous dyspepsia and colic. The dicyclic ether in the volatile oil relaxes the smooth muscle, regulating peristalsis, while the carminative volatile oil reduces flatulence and irritation of the gut wall. The bitter glycosides stimulate the appetite and digestive activity, and the herb also helps relieve inflammatory conditions of the upper digestive tract. Chamazulene and bisabolol directly reduce inflammation in tissues with which they come into contact, stimulate the formation of granulation tissue, and have an antibacterial action. Bisabalol is also protective against ulcers. The polysaccharides are have an immunostimulant action, activating macrophages and B-lymphocytes, thus demonstrating a scientific basis for the use of the herb in the topical treatment of wounds and ulcers.

Chamomilla also makes an effective lotion for eczema, a mouthwash or eyewash, or as a steam inhalation for catarrh and inflamed mucous membranes.

Chamomilla  has a reputation as a ‘female’ herb and has been used to relieve morning sickness, menopausal symptoms, dysmenorrhoea, mastitis, amenorrhoea with a psychological component (e.g. anorexia nervosa), and hysteria. 

Chamomilla has a traditional use on the Continent in the treatment of asthma and hayfever, probably due to the herb’s action on the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. It is thought  to reduce the reaction to allergens such as pollen or dust in sensitive individuals. 


Chickweed -





Cola -







Cramp bark



Devil's Claw -

Devil's Club -


Echinacea - Purposes:  immunostimulant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, vulnerary, antiseptic, peripheral vasodilator, anti-microbial, antibiotic, anti-allergenic, lymphatic tonic, warming alterative, anti-infective, stimulating, inhibits hyaluronidase activity and reduces eosinophil levels.  boils, septicaemia, naso-pharyngeal catarrh, pyorrhoea, tonsillitis. Echinacea, having both an antibacterial and antiviral action, is one of the best remedies for helping the body rid itself of microbial infections. It may be used in the treatment of boils, abscesses, carbuncles, septicaemia and other such infections and, combines with other appropriate herbs, it may be used for any infection anywhere in the body. It has been shown to improve the body's resistance to infections such as colds and influenza; it stimulates the lymphatic vascular system and the fibroblasts. It should be taken in small, frequent doses as soon as flu-like symptoms appear. It is of particular value in laryngitis, tonsillitis, and catarrhal conditions of the nose and sinus. The tincture or decoction may be used as a mouthwash in the treatment of pyorrhoea and gingivitis. Echinacea may also be applied as a lotion to infected sores and wounds, and it promotes the healing of old wounds and ulcers. A wash of Echinacea can help relieve the itching of urticaria and this treatment is also useful for stings and bites.



Ephedra -



False Unicorn Root

Fennel - Purposes:  flatulent dyspepsia, anorexia, flatulent colic in children; topical eyewash for conjunctivitis and blepharitis; gargle for pharyngitis. Fennel is primarily used in the treatment of mild, spasmodic gastrointestinal complaints such as flatulence and colic in children, and indigestion, bloating and heartburn in adults. Both the seeds and the root are appetite stimulants and sooth the digestion. The volatile oil has both carminative and spasmolytic actions, and has been shown to increase liver regeneration experimentally. Fennel is a useful remedy for upper respiratory catarrh and has a calming effect on bronchitis and coughs. It is also diuretic, and is used to treat urinary calculi. The volatile oil is bactericidal and anti-fungal, and has been shown to be effective in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. It is also slightly oestrogenic, and is a well-known means of promoting the flow of breast milk. Externally, the oil relieves muscular and rheumatic pains, and the infusion may be used in a compress to treat conjunctivitis and blepharitis. The seeds have a traditional reputation as an aid to weight loss and longevity.

Fenugreek -



Fringe Tree

Fumitory -

Galangal -

Garlic -





Goldenrod -


Gotu Kola -

Gravel Root

Greater celandine

Ground Ivy - Purposes: mild expectorant, anti-inflammatory, anticatarrhal, astringent, vulnerary, diuretic, stomachic. Used for: chronic respiratory catarrh, bronchitis, coughs, tinnitus, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, cystitis gastritis. Specifically indicated in chronic bronchial catarrh. Ground Ivy is primarily used in the treatment of bronchitis and catarrh where it exerts an expectorant action. It is of particular benefit when catarrh has built up in the inner ear, causing tinnitus. Its anti-inflammatory and astringent actions make it a useful remedy in the treatment of diarrhoea and as a topical application for haemorrhoids. Compresses of the infused herb may be applied to inflamed skin. It has also been used effectively in inflammation of the lower urinary tract, particularly cystitis. Ground Ivy is believed to stimulate the flow of bile and has been used to treat gastric and duodenal ulcers, gallstones and gallbladder disease. It is believed to stimulate the metabolism generally.

Guelder rose







Horseradish -

Horsetail - Purposes:  weak diuretic, genito-urinary astringent, antihaemorrhagic, haemostatic, prophylactic causing a mild leucocytosis, restorative to damaged pulmonary tissue, possible detoxifier; Locally styptic and vulnerary. Enuresis, prostatic disease, cystitis with haematuria, urethritis  Horsetail is an excellent genito-urinary system astringent. It may be applied to such conditions as urethritis or cystitis with haematuria, reducing haemorrhage and healing wounds thanks to the high silica content. Whilst it acts as a mild diuretic, its toning and astringent action make it of value in the treatment of incontinence and bed-wetting in children. As a diuretic it is particularly suited to metabolic or hormonal oedema during the menopause. The diuretic action is thought to be due partly to the flavonoids and saponins. It is generally accepted that water diuresis takes place without increase in the excretion of electrolytes. Sitz baths with equisetum extract are indicated for functional pelvic disease in women where there is no inflammation, but primarily muscular tensions and changes in muscle tone in the small pelvis that are autonomous in origin. It is considered a specific remedy in cases of inflammation or benign enlargement of the prostate gland. Horsetail is restorative to damaged pulmonary tissue after pulmonary tuberculosis and other lung disease, as the silicic acid is said to stabilise the scar tissue. 

The juice of the plant is good for anaemia resulting from internal bleeding such as stomach ulcers, since it promotes the coagulation of blood. Externally it is a vulnerary and may also be applied as a compress to fractures and sprains. The effect of strengthening and regenerating connective tissues has been ascribed to the silicic acid content. The local astringent and antihaemorrhagic effect explains the application of horsetail to such conditions as bleeding from the mouth, nose and vagina, its use to check diarrhoea, dysentery and bleeding from the bowel, and for slow-healing wounds, chilblains and conjunctivitis.  The fresh, crushed stems may be used to alleviate nosebleeds. The juice increases blood clotting, in spite of it containing haemolytic saponins.The tea makes a good wash for wounds, sores, skin problems and a gargle for mouth and gum inflammations. In some cases Horsetail has been found to ease the pain of rheumatism and stimulate the healing of chilblains.  Horsetail tea is good for splitting nails and lifeless hair. It is also useful when white spotting occurs on the nails (a symptom said to indicate calcium imbalance in the body).  It has been established that administration of silicic acid causes leucocytosis (a temporary increase in white blood cells). Horsetail's silica content encourages the absorption and use of calcium by the body and also helps to guard against fatty deposits in the arteries. Its influence on lipid metabolism leads to potential benefit for cardiovascular problems. 



Iceland Moss

Indian tobacco

Irish Moss

Jamaica Dogwood

Jimson Weed -


Kava kava -


Lady's Mantle -

Lady's Slipper -Purposes:  insomnia, hysteria, emotional tension, anxiety, delirium tremens

Benefits: Cypripedium may be used in the treatment of all stress reactions, helping to elevate the mood, especially where there is depression. It is particularly of benefit in anxiety associated with insomnia.  It can ease nervous pain, though is best combined with other herbs for this purpose. It can also be helpful against cramps and muscle spasms and is useful as an aid to recovery from chronic conditions.

Note: Taken in large doses the rootstock may cause hallucinations. The fresh plant can cause severe contact dermatitis. This plant is a protected species, although it is cultivated in Eastern Europe for medicinal use.

Lavender -

Lemon Balm -

Lesser Celandine

Life Root

Lignum vitae -

Lily of the Valley

Lime blossom -







Meadowsweet - Purposes: stomachic, mild urinary antiseptic, antirheumatic, astringent, antacid, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, diaphoretic, antiemetic, tonic

Benefits: peptic ulcer (prophylaxis and treatment), atonic dyspepsia with heartburn and hyperacidity, gastritis, peptic ulceration, acute catarrhal cystitis.

Meadowsweet  is an excellent digestive remedy. It protects and soothes the mucous membranes of the digestive tract, reducing excess acidity and alleviating nausea, and can be used in the treatment of heartburn, hyperacidity, gastritis and peptic ulceration. The anti-inflammatory action of the salicylates in Meadowsweet makes it effective against rheumatic pain while the tannins and mucilages appear to buffer the adverse effects of isolated salicylates which can cause gastric bleeding (Aspirin can cause gastric ulceration). Phenolic glycosides such as monotropitin yield salicylic aglycones which contribute to the anti-inflammatory and diuretic actions. The astringent tannins make Meadowsweet a useful remedy in the treatment of diarrhoea in children.

In Germany, Meadowsweet is used as a supportive treatment for common colds. Here, the salicylic acid acts to reduce fever. It is also recommended for water retention and for bladder and kidney ailments. Externally the infusion can serve as a wash for wounds or inflamed eyes.

Milk Thistle -



Mountain Flax

Mugwort -





Night Blooming Cereus



Oats - Purposes: depression, melancholia, menopausal neurasthenia, general debility. 

Benefits: Oats are a nourishing herb applicable to any state of debility and exhaustion and during convalescence. It is particularly suited as a long-term treatment in nervous debility, making gradual but sustained progress in fighting off shingles and other forms of herpes, neuralgia, neuritis and even chronic depression. It is also of benefit as part of a regime for people attempting to withdraw from an addiction to alcohol, smoking, tranquillizers or other drugs. The mild sedative and hypnotic properties are due to the indole alkaloid gramine. The alkaloid in oats stimulates the central nervous system and is the component which causes horses fed on large quantities of oats to become highly excitable

Oregon Grape -

Osha -

Parsley piert - Purposes: kidney and bladder calculi, dysuria, strangury, oedema of hepatic or renal origin.

Benefits: Alchemilla arvensis is commonly used for the removal of kidney and urinary stones and gravel. It has a potent diuretic action as well as a soothing demulcent on the urinary tract and is of benefit in all cases of painful urination. It may be used where there is water retention, especially where this is due to kidney or liver problems.

Partridge berry

Pasque flower


Pellitory-of-the-wall -


Peruvian Balsam


Pill-bearing spurge

Pipsissewa -

Pleurisy root

Poke root

Prickly Ash

Psyllium - Purposes: Demulcent, bulk laxative

Used for: Chronic constipation, dysentery, chronic diarrhoea, cystitis, poultice for furunculosis.

Benefits: Psyllium is used to treat sluggish or irritable bowels. Its non-irritant nature means that it is safe to use in such conditions as Crohn's disease. It may be applied topically for infections and furunculosis


Purple Coneflower

Queen's Delight - Purposes: sialagogue, expectorant, alterative, dermatological agent, diaphoretic, astringent, antispasmodic, circulatory stimulant, laxative, cathartic in large doses. Bronchitis, laryngitis, laryngismus stridulus, cutaneous eruptions, haemorrhoids, constipation

Benefits: Stillingia is of value in the treatment of chronic exudative skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis, and is specifically indicated where there is lymphatic involvement. Treatment is likely to be fairly long-term. It is also used to treat bronchitic congestion and laryngitis, especially when accompanied by loss of voice (laryngismus stridulus); it may also be used to treat croup when the cough is harsh (the herb helps promote the flow of saliva). It will help to relieve constipation and, as an astringent, it is particularly of benefit for haemorrhoids.


Red Clover

Ribwort Plantain -

Roman Chamomile -

Rosemary - Purposes:  carminative, stomachic, aromatic, spasmolytic, thymoleptic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, diaphoretic, stimulant to the peripheral circulation, sedative, antidepressive, relaxant, restorative to the nervous system, reputed cardiac tonic, cholagogue, diuretic, emmenagogue, antimicrobial. Topically rubefacient, mild analgesic and parasiticide

Uses: Flatulent dyspepsia associated with psychogenic tension, migrainous, vasoconstrictive or hypertensive headaches. Topically for myalgia, sciatica and intercostal neuralgia.

Benefits:  Rosmarinus is specifically indicated in depressive states accompanied by general debility and indications of cardiovascular weakness and is of value as a tonic for elderly people with weak circulation, particularly after a debilitating illness such as influenza and pneumonia. The flavonoid diosmin improves the circulation and strengthens fragile blood vessels.  Diosmin is reported to be more effective in decreasing capillary fragility than rutin. The herb is of benefit in palpitations and other signs of nervous tension which affect the circulation. The camphor has a general tonic effect on the circulation and nervous system, especially the vascular nerves, making it an excellent drug for all states of chronic circulatory weakness including hypotension. 

Rosmarinus is beneficial in dyspeptic conditions with flatulence and signs of liver inadequacy. It is of particular value in atonic conditions of the stomach where there is also generally poor circulation. The herb reduces flatulence and is stimulating to the digestion, liver and gallbladder, increasing the flow of bile; as rosmaricine breaks down in the body it stimulates the smooth muscle of the digestive tract and gallbladder. An infusion makes a good mouthwash for halitosis. 

Externally, Rosmarinus is used to ease muscular pain, sciatica and neuralgia, and the oil is a component of liniments used for rheumatism. A salve made from the oil can be applied to sores, eczema, bruises and wounds. The anti-inflammatory action of the herb is thought to be due to rosmarinic acid, ursolic acid and apigenin. 

It is an excellent remedy for headache, taken either as an infusion or by applying the oil to the temples. Rosemarinus can also be applied locally as a wash for dandruff and scurf, or added to a bath for a stimulating effect. It has been used since ancient times to improve and strengthen the memory.

Sage - Purposes: aromatic, carminative, spasmolytic, antiseptic, astringent, antihidrotic

Used for: flatulent dyspepsia, pharyngitis, uvulitis, stomatitis, gingivitis, glossitis, taken internally or as a gargle or mouthwash; hyperhydrosis, galactorrhoea. Specifically indicated in inflammations of the mouth, tongue or throat.

Benefits: The thujone in the volatile oil has an antiseptic and antibiotic action and, when taken as a mouthwash, Salvia deals effectively with throat infections, dental abscesses, infected gums and mouth ulcers. It can also be applied to external wounds. The essential oil, heated in a vaporiser, will disinfect sick-rooms. The phenolic acids in Salvia are particularly potent against Staphylococcus aureus . In vitro, sage oil has been shown to be effective against both gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli and Salmonella species, and against filamentous fungi and yeasts such as Candida albicans. Salvia also has an astringent action due to its relatively high tannin content and can be used in the treatment of infantile diarrhoea. Its antiseptic action is of value where there is intestinal infection. Rosmarinic acid contributes to the herb's anti-inflammatory activity.

Salvia has an antispasmodic action which reduces tension in smooth muscle, and it can be used in a steam inhalation for asthma attacks. It is an excellent remedy for helping to remove mucous congestion in the airways and for checking or preventing secondary infection. It may be taken as a carminative to reduce griping and other symptoms of indigestion, and is also of value in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. Its bitter component stimulates upper digestive secretions, intestinal mobility, bile flow, and pancreatic function, while the volatile oil has a carminative and stimulating effect on the digestion. The thujone has a vermifuge action. There also seems to be a more general relaxant effect, so that the plant is suitable in the treatment of nervousness, excitability and dizziness. It helps to fortify a generally debilitated nervous system.

Salvia has a strong antihydrotic action, and was a traditional treatment for night sweats in tuberculosis sufferers. Its appreciable oestrogenic effect make it particularly beneficial for the night sweats of the menopause (it should never be used to suppress perspiration in fevers). Its oestrogenic effects may also be used to treat some cases of dysmenorrhoea and menstrual irregularity or amenorrhoea. It is effective in reducing milk production, and can be used during the process of weaning an infant off the breast.

Sarsaparilla -

Saw Palmetto

St. John's Wort


Seven Barks

Shepherd's Purse

Skullcap - Purposes:  anticonvulsive, sedative, nervine, central nervous relaxant and restorative, antispasmodic

Used for: chorea, hysteria, nervous tension states. Specifically indicated in grand mal.

Benefits: Scutellaria relaxes states of nervous tension and has a specific use in the treatment of seizure and hysterical states.  It is of value in all exhausted or depressed conditions and may be used to treat pre-menstrual tension. It is useful in insomnia and nervous headaches. Its bitter taste is also strengthening and stimulating to the digestive system.

Skunk cabbage -

Slippery elm

Smooth Alder -





Sweet Flag -

Sweet Oriental Gum -

Sweet Sumach -

Sweet Violet -

Tansy -


Thornapple -


Thyme - Used for: Carminative, digestive tonic, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, relaxing expectorant, astringent, anthelmintic, antitussive, secretomotor effect. Dyspepsia, chronic gastritis, bronchitis, pertussis, asthma, diarrhoea in children, enuresis in children; as a gargle for laryngitis and tonsillitis. Specifically indicated in pertussis and bronchitis.

Benefits: The volatile oil of Thymus exerts a calming influence on smooth muscle. It is a useful carminative in dyspepsia, and the high tannin content helps to relieve diarrhoea. Thymol is twenty times more antiseptic than phenol, but unlike the latter, it does not have an irritant effect on the mucosa and may safely be taken internally. It is active against a variety of intestinal infections and infestations, particularly hookworm and ascarids, and can significantly change the bacterial populations of the gut, actions enhanced by the poor absorption of thymol into the bloodstream. The oil has been shown to be effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and yeasts such as Candida albicans. Rosmarinic acid has an anti-inflammatory action. Thymus' bitter component stimulates the appetite, aids a sluggish digestion and improves liver function.  

The small proportion of thymol that is absorbed into the bloodstream carries the antiseptic effect to the lungs and kidneys where it is excreted from the body in the urine and on the breath. Thymus is therefore of use in the treatment of bronchial, pulmonary and urinary infections. It has an expectorant action, increasing the production of a fluid mucus to ensure a productive cough. The carvacrol stimulates the mucous membranes into secretory activity, while the saponins are  reflex-stimulating expectorants. Thymus has a specific use in asthma and coughs with a nervous component, and thyme oil may be added to a base oil and used as a rub for chest infections, or included in a steam inhalation for asthma.

Thymus is an effective topical anti-fungal treatment and can be used as a mouthwash and gargle against oral Candida. It may also be used as a gargle in laryngitis and tonsillitis. Thymus can also be used externally as a lotion for infected wounds, or applied to insect bites stings. The tannins provide an appreciable local astringent effect.Thymol is believed to stimulate the immune system. 


Valerian - Purposes: Sedative, relaxant, mild anodyne, hypnotic, spasmolytic, carminative, hypotensive, expectorant, diuretic, warming

Used for: Hysterical states, excitability, insomnia and disturbed sleep patterns, hypochondriasis, migraine, cramp, intestinal colic, rheumatic pains, dysmenorrhoea. Specifically indicated in conditions presenting nervous excitability.

Benefits:  Valeriana is used to reduce tension and anxiety, over-excitability and hysterical states. It is calming without exerting too sedative an effect and is practically non-addictive. It is a valuable treatment for insomnia, the sedative effect due to the valepotriates and the isovaleric acid, which is also responsible for the characteristic smell of valerian. Documented research has noted a mild hypnotic action in both normal sleepers and insomniacs, indicated by a beneficial effect on sleep latency, wake-time after sleep, frequency of waking, nocturnal motor activity, inner restlessness and tension and quality of sleep. Sleepiness and dream recall the morning after were unaffected. The valepotriates have a regulatory effect on the autonomic nervous system - one fraction has a suppressant effect, another a stimulant one, so that in combination they have an amphoteric effect. The valepotriates have an antispasmodic action too, making the herb an appropriate remedy where pain is associated with tension. It helps relieve dysmenorrhoea and it can be of benefit  in migraine and rheumatic pain. It may also be applied locally as a treatment for cramps and other muscle tensions.

Valeriana may used as an expectorant to help relieve tickling, nervous coughs. It also has a strengthening action on the heart, and experiments indicate that it can lower blood pressure. Tincture of valerian is reputed to clear dandruff.



White Dead Nettle - Purposes: astringent, haemostatic

Used For: menorrhagia, leucorrhoea

Benefits:  The tannins in Lamium are responsible for its tranquillising, mildly astringent and haemostatic actions,  while the saponins are responsible for a mild expectorant action. It may be used as a gargle for sore throats and inflamed gums, and as a compress for wounds, haemorrhoids, eczema and burns. It is a useful remedy in  menorrhagia and intermenstrual bleeding, and for the regulation of  intestinal activity and bowel movement. It is also used in the treatment of abnormal vaginal discharge. In France, it is used to cleanse the kidneys and to treat haematuria.

White Horehound

White Pond Lily -

White Willow -

Wild Cherry

Wild Indigo

Wild Lettuce -

Wild Marjoram

Wild Yam

Wintergreen -

Witch Hazel

Wormwood -


Yellow Dock - Purposes: chronic skin conditions, obstructive jaundice, constipation

Benefits:  Rumex crispus is used extensively in the treatment of chronic skin complaints, especially psoriasis associated with constipation; and obstructive jaundice. The anthraquinones have a cathartic action on the bowel, but act in quite a mild way, possibly tempered by the tannin content. It promotes the flow of bile, and its  action on the gallbladder gives it a role in the treatment of jaundice when this is due to congestion. The plant's high iron content makes it valuable for correcting anaemia. A compress can be used to help soothe itchy skin. The ointment is valuable for itching, sores, swellings and scabby eruptions

Yellow Jasmine -

Yerba Mansa -

Yerba mate